There wouldn't be Europeans living all over the globe if it wasn't for wind power. Long before that the Chinese had sail boats, the Egyptians the Sumerians etc. I conclude A wind powered car is an oxymoron. The biggest problem is to fit such "sailboat" into existing traffic.
Imagine a windmill fixed onto a cart. We lock the wheels in place and use the wind to charge a battery. We may then use the electricity to move the cart.
If there is energy available it will always be enough to move the cart. It might not go fast (jet) it will absolutely move.
The windmill however doesn't become less efficient if we move it up the wind. On the contrary. Moving the cart is equal to moving the windmill. The availability of the wind is exactly the same as when standing still.
The difference is that more units of wind pass though the mill and there is drag. The drag doesn't seem useful but it represents most of the losses, regenerating 50% of the drag would roughly give us 150% of the engine power (ignoring the mass)
We may overcome the (big) losses from converting the energy to electricity by using the mechanical energy straight away.
Just like with the battery mechanical energy is always enough to move the vehicle. It might not go fast (jet) if there is wind it will always move. And it can move in any direction we want it to move in.
To get the most out of the smallest surface we have to use a turbine with a large contact surface. Such turbine will have only one active side.
We can shield this side like so:
But it would be better to bend the airstream onto the active area like this:
This ornament increases the efficiency of the wind turbine but it also allows us to "hide" the passenger in the turbine without suffering any additional aerodynamic drag.
This would make the vehicle look something like this.
We normally tend to leave a vehicle alone for say 8-14 hours then we use it for 30-60 min. Over that time charging the battery would be more interesting again. A combination of both would give us best of both worlds.
Having electric motors would also allow us to use the magic of regenerative breaking. Our motors would end up much to small and even if they could absorb the breaking energy the power surge the electric motors are trying to ram into the battery (& capacitors) would be much to big.
The perpetual car could thus have a belt driving a small flywheel in enormous gear ratio. Such can absorb most of the breaking energy. Because it's small it can only maintain a little bit of power over small a duration. It should however be big enough to cut down the breaking power surge sufficiently. Belt 2 in reverse but equally enormous gear ratio could feed the energy back onto the wheels in case the vehicle is allowed to accelerate straight away.
It should however be small enough not to have a negative effect on the wind propulsion.
For the bicycle,
In US Patent No. 583533 Edward P. Hart disclosed a simple and efficent mechanism adapted to be actuated by the force of the wind to propel a bicycle. dated June 1, 1897
In US Patent No. 599048 Thomas Lord Turner disclosed an invention related to bicycles and similar vehicles; where the object thereof is to provide an improved propelling mechanism for vehicles of this class whereby the vehicle may be propelled at a maximum speed with a minimum application of power. dated February 15, 1898
In US Patent No. 1709684 Paul Possin disclosed a wind powered system for airship radio operation. dated April 16,1929
In US Patent No. 1362466 Napoleon Beaudin disclosed a wind powered alternative power source for aeroplanes. dated Dec 14, 1920
In US Patent No. 3315085 Joseph a Mileti disclosed an alternative power source for an airplanes March 12, 1965
For installation on the roof of a vehicle,
In US Patent No. 4437698 Anthony T. Tantalo disclosed an electric/wind powered device to propel and reduce air resistance. He makes the point that the rotational speed of the rotor is a function of the linear speed of the vehicle and a head wind, if present. dated march 20, 1984
In US Patent No. 6838782 Thomas H. Vu describes A wind energy capturing device and electrical power generator for moving vehicles. dated November 5, 2002
For electric cars,
In US Patent No. 1903307 Battista Giovanni Gillio discloses a wind and drag powered vehicle having a generator to charge batteries to power a starting motor if insufficient wind is available. dated January 11, 1932
In US Patent No. 3513326 Harold S Potts disclosed a wind powered battery charging system for a car. dated May, 1970
In US Patent No. 4002218 George T. Horvat disclosed a wind powered electric vehicle having an alternating pulsed charging/discharging system using the current differential. dated January 11, 1977
In US Patent No. 4075545 Merle D. Haberer disclosed a pair of air driven impeller rotors mounted in the front end portion of a vehicle and operatively connected to one or more generators for charging drive motor energizing batteries responsive to forward movement of the vehicle. dated February 21, 1978
In US Patent No. 4314160 Leon Boodman and James P. Malone disclose a wind turbine to increase the range of an electric vehicle. dated February 2, 1982
In US Patent No. 3556239 Joseph W. Spahn disclosed a by wind and drag charged electical vehicle having a small combustion engine. dated September 23, 1968
In US Patent No. 5280827 Cletus L. Taylor disclosed An electric vehicle with a large wind turbine mounted at the rear. A long venturi tube extends along the upper portion of the vehicle above the passenger cab and directs air flow from the front of the vehicle and impinges it upon an upper portion of the turbine blades. A pair of elongated lower screw-type turbines are contained in separate lower venturi effect tubes extending along the lower side of the vehicle below the passenger cab. dated December 22, 1992
In US Patent No. 2941613 , Mario S Di Perna disclosed a wind powered vehicle. dated July 1, 1958
Wind assisted combustion engines,
In US patent No. 5386146 John J. Hickey disclosed a wind and drag powered car battery charging system. dated May 2, 1994
In US Patent No. 1808874 Earle F. Wilson discloses a basic covered wind turbine. dated February 24, 1928
In US Patent No. 1263983 Charles H Winne discloses a windmill for an aeroplane boat, car or train. dated April 23, 1918
In US Patent No. 3878913 Donald C. Lionts disclosed a windmill generator system for an electric vehicle.
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US 3942025 Zaisui Ri
2555807 Rotor tip lights for aeroplanes
2153523, double blades partially restoring the airflow.